Well-organized propaganda is able to work with different elements that exist within a nation such as religion, political parties, and labor groups. The propaganda element is the way of life with which the individual is permeated and then the individual begins to express it in film, writing, or art without realizing it. The reader is hypnotized by data which eliminates “personal judgment and the capacity to form one’s own opinion …” (87). Isolation, Weakening of Old Groups, Use of New Groups More importantly even though it does not create new material and is confined to what already exists, it is not necessarily powerless. The ideology merely provides the content for the propagandist to build off since he is limited to what already is present within the group, nation, or society. “In the midst of increasing mechanization and technological organization, propaganda is simply the means used to prevent these things from being felt as too oppressive and to persuade man to submit with good grace. Propaganda, as it is traditionally known, implies an attempt to spread an ideology through the mass media of communication in order to lead the public to a desired action. Public Opinion and Politics: "It can attack from the rear, war own slowly, provide new centers of interest, which cause the neglect of previously acquired positions; it can divert a prejudice; or it can elicit an action contrary to an opinion held by the individual without his being clearly aware of it."[23]. It is through information that the individual is placed in a social context and learns to understand the reality of his own situation. This type of propaganda changes the public opinion of an opposing regime so that it can be in favor of their regime. First conditions for growth and development of modern propaganda: it emerged in Western Europe in the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth precisely because that was when society was becoming increasingly individualistic and its organic structures were breaking down. (colon). Integration propaganda: It eradicates the individual out of his normal framework and then proceeds to plunge him into enthusiasm by suggesting extraordinary goals which nevertheless seem to him completely within reach. Interrogé pour une série consacrée au phénomène de la propagande, Ellul explique en quoi ce phénomène a selon lui considérablement évolué, au point de n'avoir plus qu'un rapport très lointain avec ce qu'il était au XIXème et au début du XXème siècles. The book contains Ellul's theories about the nature of propaganda to adapt the individual to a society, to a living standard, and to an activity aiming to make the individual serve and conform. The man “immersed in current affairs” is “at the mercy of the propagandist”. Democratic regimes develop propaganda in line with its myths and prejudices. Man becomes modified in a way where he “demands simple solutions, catchwords, certainties, continuity, commitment, a clear and simple division of the world into Good and Evil … He cannot bear ambiguity” (255). Vintage Books Edition, 1973. See Details. This thorough analysis made by Ellul illustrates that to downplay the importance of the sociological influences of propaganda to psychological ones is a dreadful error. However they lose their value as immediacy passes as old facts are replaced by new ones. The individual is not in the battle because he is the stake and the battle will determine what voice he will be permitted to hear and which words will have the power to obsess him."[18]. But they cannot be trained by propaganda, kept in hand, channeled, and oriented. Freedom Groups. Main Goal: Provoke Action without Thought Danger of Using Propaganda to Promote Religion or Defend Democracy He is anxious without it. The individual is by no means just an innocent victim of propaganda when in fact he provokes the psychological action of propaganda by not merely lending himself to it, but also from deriving satisfaction from it. Propaganda is the outlet through which individuals obtain the satisfaction of having contributed to the state. Myth has the power to drive people to action, as opposed to passive ideology (116). Propaganda is more threatening when it begins to be recognized as sociological as well psychological in nature. The fundamental ideologies are nationalism, socialism, communism, and democracy. No opinion can be held until it is communicated to the masses through mass media. Purposes of propaganda: a society in which no single act can be a matter of indifference; every act and feeling assumes a political character; no act is purely personal” (290). In Ellul's view, there is a "double foray on the part of propaganda that proves the excellence of one group and the evilness of another at the same time to create partitioning". Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes . It presents a sophisticated taxonomyfor propaganda, including such paired opposites as political–sociological, vertical–horizontal, rational–irrat… Subconsciously a person may notice the party line changing, but it is too painful for him to question the “new truth” (19, 20). Incidentally, there are also the undecided, people whose opinions are vague, who form the majority of citizens within the collective. The State has the need to make propaganda to integrate citizens into its society, to disseminate information, and to increase participation and involvement of members of society. He says that if the ruler wants to “follow secret policies, he must present a decoy to the masses. The goals are determined by the government, party, administration, or pressure group. This involuntary behavior creates an expansion of society through advertising, the movies, education, and magazines. Propaganda can gradually undermine prejudices and images in order to weaken them. [13], Sociological propaganda is a phenomenon where a society seeks to integrate the maximum number of individuals into itself by unifying its members' behavior according to a pattern, spreading its style of life abroad, and thus imposing itself on other groups. Propaganda must be total in that utilizes all forms of media to draw the individual into the net of propaganda. Propaganda can be very inconsistent. Sometimes the people want to take part in government affairs. Information allows us to evaluate our situation feel our own personal problems are a general social problem thus enabling propaganda to entice us into social and political action. The psychological effects of propaganda on an individual cannot be ignored. If the Church uses propaganda to disseminate Christianity, it’s not Christianity (230). All propaganda is based on a need, a dual need, first there is the need of state to make it and second there is the need of propagandee to receive it. 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